Legal Research Reports - Recent Updates

Legal Research Reports - Recent Updates

06/22/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Patent Term Extensions and Adjustments

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Patent Term Extensions and Adjustments

This report surveys the law on extensions and adjustments of patents in nine jurisdictions: Australia, Canada, the European Union, France, Germany, Israel, Japan, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. All of the surveyed jurisdictions provide for a standard patent term of twenty years, and all of them except Canada provide for extensions of protection for certain products that are subject to regulatory approval before they can be marketed. While Canada currently does not have legislation providing for extensions of patent protection, it is currently negotiating a trade agreement with the European Union that in draft form provides for patent term extensions of two to five years for qualifying pharmaceutical products.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


06/15/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Israel: Military Court Decision on Killing Neutralized Palestinian Assailant

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Israel: Military Court Decision on Killing Neutralized Palestinian Assailant.

On January 4, 2017, Israel’s Military Court convicted a sergeant in the Israel Defense Forces of manslaughter and of “unbecoming conduct” for shooting and killing an injured Palestinian assailant without justification and in violation of military rules of engagement. The Court ruled that the defendant’s act was not intended for the performance of a defined mission.  Taking a person’s life after he has been subdued—even the life of a “terrorist,” as the assailant is referred to throughout the decision—is prohibited and violated military ethical rules, the Court said, and as such did not coincide with the behavior expected from a soldier at the rank of the defendant. 

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


06/08/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Miranda Warning Equivalents Abroad

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Miranda Warning Equivalents Abroad

This report contains short summaries describing warnings similar to the Miranda warning that are required in 108 jurisdictions around the globe. The warnings specified in the surveyed jurisdictions vary, but typically include the right to remain silent and the right to legal counsel. A number of countries also specify that a person who is arrested or detained has the right to be informed of the reasons for the arrest or detention or of the charges being brought. In some countries, the additional right to have these things explained in a language the detainee understands is explicitly stated. Countries surveyed that have no Miranda-type warning were not included.

More information on this report is available in an In Custodia Legis blog post.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


06/01/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Laws Lifting Sovereign Immunity

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Laws Lifting Sovereign Immunity

This report provides a review of laws adopted in Cuba, Iran, Libya, Russia, Sudan, and Syria on lifting the sovereign immunity of foreign states. Individual lawsuits against the United States brought before national and international courts by these countries are also analyzed. Except for Iran and Russia, the surveyed countries have no specific legislation addressing general principles of sovereign immunity. Iran uses domestic counterterrorism legislation to facilitate the freezing of financial assets of foreign governments. Syria uses such legislation to freeze the assets of individuals, including government officials, while Sudan uses it simply to prosecute foreign nationals. Cuba and Iran have adopted special laws targeting the US.

More information on this report is available in an In Custodia Legis blog post.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


05/04/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Switzerland: Implementation of Article 126 of the Swiss Constitution – The “Debt Brake”

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Switzerland: Implementation of Article 126 of the Swiss Constitution – The “Debt Brake”.

Article 126 of the Swiss Constitution codifies a fiscal rule for the federal government called “debt brake,” which is designed to finance expenditures through revenues instead of new debt. It was first applied in the federal budget of 2003. Details of the debt brake are implemented in articles 13 to 18 of the Financial Budget Act. Compliance is monitored by the Swiss Federal Audit Office.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


04/27/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Decriminalization of Narcotics

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Decriminalization of Narcotics

This report provides a review of laws adopted in 16 countries with regard to legalization, decriminalization, or other forms of regulation of narcotics and other psychoactive substances. Individual country surveys included in this study demonstrate varied approaches to the problem of prosecuting drug use, possession, manufacturing, purchase, and sale. The country surveys demonstrate some diversity and common threads among these jurisdictions as to defining narcotics, distinguishing between “hard” and “soft” drugs, establishing special regulations concerning cannabis, refusing to prosecute personal use and/or possession of small quantities of drugs for personal use, giving law enforcement authorities the discretion not to prosecute minors and first-time offenders, applying alternative forms of punishment, and providing treatment opportunities.

More information on this report is available in an In Custodia Legis blog post.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


04/20/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Japan: 2016 Criminal Justice System Reform

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Japan: 2016 Criminal Justice System Reform

Japan made reforms to its criminal justice system in June 2016 by amending its Criminal Procedure Code and other laws. The reform that received the most discussion by Japan’s Judicial System Committee was the introduction of the mandatory video recording of interrogations. Another reform that was introduced was bargaining between the defendant and the prosecutor. New crimes were also added to the list of those in which suspects’ communications may be intercepted. In addition, the scope of evidence that must be disclosed in trials was expanded, and new measures to protect witnesses and victims were introduced.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


04/13/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Regulation of Drones

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Regulation of Drones

The increased use of drones for civilian applications has presented many countries with regulatory challenges. Such challenges include the need to ensure that drones are operated safely, without harming public and national security, and in a way that would protect areas of national, historical, or natural importance. A variety of the countries surveyed in this report have also made efforts to address concerns regarding the property and privacy rights of landowners or other persons impacted by the operation of drones.

More information on this report is available in an In Custodia Legis blog post.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


04/06/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Constitutional Right to an Education

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Constitutional Right to an Education

This report describes the law of twenty jurisdictions on the right to education, and whether the right appears in the national constitution or in statutory law. The jurisdictions selected for review have different constitutional arrangements and reflect diverse political, cultural, and economic experiences. All of the surveyed jurisdictions recognize the right to education. Fifteen of them provide for the right in their national constitutions, while five provide for the right through legislation. All reflect an interesting diversity in how the right to education is recognized in varied jurisdictions around the globe.

More information on this report is available in an In Custodia Legis blog post.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


03/30/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Egypt: Sexual Violence Against Women

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Egypt: Sexual Violence Against Women

Violence against women has been a significant social and legal problem in Egypt for decades. The two main legislative instruments protecting women from sexual violence are the Egyptian Constitution of 2014 and the Criminal Code of 1937 and its amendments. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 not only preserved the rights granted to women by previous Egyptian Constitutions but also introduced more rights aimed at protecting women from other forms of violence and discrimination.

More information on this report is available in an In Custodia Legis blog post.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


03/23/2017 02:30 PM
Legal Research Reports: Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity, and War Crimes Jurisdiction

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity, and War Crimes Jurisdiction

This report covers 149 jurisdictions that have laws punishing at least one of the three crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes. It indicates, where information was available, whether those laws cover only nationals, foreign persons when the offense is committed within the territory, or foreign persons when the offenses are committed outside of the country’s borders. In cases for which it is known that the laws have actually been applied, that information is included.

More information on this report is available in an In Custodia Legis blog post.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


03/16/2017 03:24 PM
Legal Research Reports: Laws on Leg-Hold Animal Traps Around the World

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present the report, Laws on Leg-Hold Animal Traps Around the World

The report contains information on laws regulating or banning the use of leg-hold traps in 108 jurisdictions. In a number of jurisdictions the law generally regulates or bans all traps, or prohibits trapping in particular areas, without separately addressing the question of leg-hold traps. Countries with laws that merely provide in general terms that animals must be treated humanely have not been included. Some countries, such as India and Sri Lanka, have at times considered restrictions on traps but to date have not adopted them; such countries are not listed here.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


12/15/2015 04:44 PM
UPDATED: Legal Research Reports: Japan: Interpretations of Article 9 of the Constitution

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Japan: Interpretations of Article 9 of the Constitution.

One of the distinctive features of Japan’s current Constitution is its embrace of pacifism. In article 9 of the Constitution, Japan is allowed the Jieitai, Self-Defense Forces (SDF), but many have argued that the SDF is in fact a military organization and that its existence is unconstitutional. The government has interpreted article 9 of the Constitution to legalize and limit the SDF, and there has historically been limited support to amend article 9. However, global political and security issues impacting Japan have changed, as have the viewpoints of the Japanese people, and there now appear to be realistic opportunities to amend article 9.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


12/15/2015 03:00 PM
Legal Research Reports: Japan: Article 9 of the Constitution

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Japan: Article 9 of the Constitution.

Although from the mid-1980s until recently, the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (known as the PKK) was the major insurgent opponent of the Turkish government, in the past couple of years the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and small Marxist-Leninist groups have come to play a role in terrorist attacks in the country.  Foreign fighters engaged in the Syrian civil war have also posed problems for national security in the last several years.  Turkey has responded to terrorism not only by adopting more stringent laws, but also, among other measures, by creating a terrorist blacklist, enhancing antiterrorist international cooperation, using an outreach program to communities to prevent terrorist recruitment, and relying on Turkey’s chief religious affairs body to counter violent extremist messaging.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 

 


12/10/2015 03:00 PM
Legal Research Reports: Turkey: Recent Developments in National and Public Security Law

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Turkey: Recent Developments in National and Public Security Law.

In March 2015, Turkey’s Parliament passed two major “package” laws, many of whose provisions tighten government control over national and public security in the country. In particular, Law No. 6638 enhances police powers to conduct searches, use weapons, wiretap, detain individuals without a warrant, and remove demonstrators from scenes of protest. Law No. 6639, amends the Law on Internet Media Regulation to extend government control over the Internet. Critics of the recent tightening of national security laws have expressed concern, in particular about their impact on freedom of the press in Turkey, but also about the exercise of the rule of law in the country in general.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


12/08/2015 03:00 PM
Legal Research Reports: Legal Provisions on Fighting Extremism

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Legal Provisions on Fighting Extremism.

This report analyzes anti-extremist legislation and other legal provisions on fighting extremism in China, Pakistan, Russia, and Tajikistan. The definition of “extremism” is examined, as well as the purpose and procedural aspects of the legislation.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


12/03/2015 03:00 PM
Legal Research Reports: Turkey: Counterterrorism and Justice

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Turkey: Counterterrorism and Justice.

Although from the mid-1980s until recently, the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (known as the PKK) was the major insurgent opponent of the Turkish government, in the past couple of years the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and small Marxist-Leninist groups have come to play a role in terrorist attacks in the country.  Foreign fighters engaged in the Syrian civil war have also posed problems for national security in the last several years.  Turkey has responded to terrorism not only by adopting more stringent laws, but also, among other measures, by creating a terrorist blacklist, enhancing antiterrorist international cooperation, using an outreach program to communities to prevent terrorist recruitment, and relying on Turkey’s chief religious affairs body to counter violent extremist messaging.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


12/01/2015 03:00 PM
Legal Research Reports: Algeria, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia: Response to Terrorism

The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Algeria, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia: Response to Terrorism.

Acts of terrorism committed on September 11, 2001, and subsequent international actions caused many countries, including Algeria, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia, to enhance their counterterrorism policies through amending existing or enacting new laws related to the criminal justice system.  All three countries have adopted broad definitions of terrorism, raising concerns that they could include acts of political dissent within the ambit of acts of terrorism.  At various points they have also adopted criminal procedure provisions that lowered certain restrictions for investigations of crimes labeled as crimes of terrorism, made the financing of terrorism a separate offense, and required all suspicious financial transactions to be subject to scrutiny by special financial units before they are referred to the competent criminal authorities. In addition, Morocco and Saudi Arabia recognize that there is a religious component to the acts of terrorism committed by many terrorist organizations.  They proclaim to have established special programs to seek to address this element of terrorism by means other than the criminal justice system.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress. Visit the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports page for a complete listing of reports and the Current Legal Topics page for our highlighted and newer reports. 


10/14/2015 02:35 PM
Israel: Spousal Agreements for Couples Not Belonging to Any Religion--A Civil Marriage Option?

You are subscribed to Legal Research Reports from Library of Congress. This information has recently been updated.


The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Israel: Spousal Agreements for Couples Not Belonging to Any Religion--A Civil Marriage Option?.

Marriage and divorce in Israel are generally subject to the application of personal status laws of the parties involved. In the absence of a uniform law in these matters, Jewish Israelis who do not qualify under Jewish law or who do not wish to undergo religious ceremonies are trying to find alternative ways to marry and divorce. The Law on Spousal Agreements for Persons Without a Religion, 5770-2010 partially addressed the problems of couples where both spouses do not belong to any recognized religion. It did not, however, resolve the problems shared by couples where one spouse does belong to such a religion. It similarly did not offer a nonreligious alternative to those electing not to undergo religious ceremonies. Whereas some perceive the law as a positive step in regulating marriage and divorce in Israel, others view it as a step back, creating more dependence on religious courts and further dividing Israel's society not only along religious lines but even within religious groups. The law clearly does not provide a new civil law option to religiously recognized marriages.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/marriage/spousal-agreements-israel.php to read the entire report and visit http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2015/10/mazel-tov-i-now-pronounce-you-husband-and-wife-under-israeli-law/ to read the author's blog post about this report.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php and one of the new reports highlighted at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php. The Law Library of Congress produces reports for members of Congress and others. Learn more at http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/05/law-library-provides-global-legal-research/.


09/09/2015 01:25 PM
New Zealand: 'Climate Change Refugee' Case Overview

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The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, New Zealand: 'Climate Change Refugee' Case Overview.

A New Zealand case involving an application for refugee status based on the effects of climate change in the Pacific Island nation of Kiribati has received media attention around the world. The proceedings in the case came to a close in July 2015, when the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the highest court in the country, dismissed an application for leave to appeal the Court of Appeal's decision in which it ruled against the applicant.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/climate-change-refugee/new-zealand.php to read the entire report.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php and one of the new reports highlighted at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php. The Law Library of Congress produces reports for members of Congress and others. Learn more at http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/05/law-library-provides-global-legal-research/.

08/26/2015 06:25 PM
Legal Status of Khat in Selected Jurisdictions

You are subscribed to Legal Research Reports from Library of Congress. This information has recently been updated.


The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Legal Status of Khat in Selected Jurisdictions.

The report summarizes the legal status of khat (Catha edulis, also known as kat, qat, chat, and miraa), a plant whose leaves have a stimulant effect when chewed, in seven jurisdictions. It includes information regarding the legality of khat in each jurisdiction and, where it is banned, the applicable penalties. According to applicable tax laws or secondary sources, khat appears to be legal in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Yemen, but is banned in Jordan. Its status in Turkey, where it is categorized as a controlled substance, is unclear. Whereas it is legal under Turkish law to produce, sell, import, and export khat with a license, it appears that consumption of the substance is banned.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/legal-status-of-khat/index.php to read the entire report.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php and one of the new reports highlighted at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php. The Law Library of Congress produces reports for members of Congress and others. Learn more at http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/05/law-library-provides-global-legal-research/.

08/05/2015 02:25 PM
Germany: Electronic Cigarettes

You are subscribed to Legal Research Reports from Library of Congress. This information has recently been updated.


The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Germany: Electronic Cigarettes.

Electronic cigarettes in Germany are currently not subject to any age-related access restrictions. The Federal Administrative Court concluded recently that nicotine-containing liquids in electronic cigarettes are not medicinal products and therefore can be sold without approval in accordance with the Medicinal Products Act. It is still unclear whether such liquids are covered by tobacco regulations and antismoking laws.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/electronic-cigarettes/germany.php to read the entire report and visit http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2015/08/regulation-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-germany/ to read the author's blog post about this report.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php and one of the new reports highlighted at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php. The Law Library of Congress produces reports for members of Congress and others. Learn more at http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/05/law-library-provides-global-legal-research/.

07/29/2015 01:42 PM
Islamic Law: A Bibliography of Works Published in English, 2009-2014

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The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Islamic Law: A Bibliography of Works Published in English, 2009-2014.

This bibliography contains English-language books and articles within books that discuss Islamic law. The titles were published in the years 2009-2014 and are held in the Library of Congress. The listing is divided into three sections: works on the history of Islamic law, general works on contemporary law, and works devoted to contemporary law on a specific topic, including alternative dispute resolution, banking and finance, citizenship, commercial law, constitutions, construction, criminal law, family law, food, health, human rights, international law and national security, organizations, privacy, and women's rights.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/islamic-law-bibliography/2009-2014.php to read the entire report and http://loc.gov/law/help/islamic-law-bibliography/2003-2008.php to read a previous version (works published from 2003-2008).

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php and one of the new reports highlighted at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php. The Law Library of Congress produces reports for members of Congress and others. Learn more at http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/05/law-library-provides-global-legal-research/.

07/15/2015 05:02 PM
Germany: Privatization of Air Traffic Control

You are subscribed to Legal Research Reports from Library of Congress. This information has recently been updated.


The Law Library is proud to present a new report, Germany: Privatization of Air Traffic Control.

The original wording of article 87d of the German Basic Law precluded privatization of air traffic administration. A first constitutional amendment in 1992 was interpreted to permit only corporatization. In order to allow functional privatization and implement the European Union Single European Sky framework, article 87d of the Basic Law was amended a second time in 2009.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/air-traffic-control-privatization/germany.php to read the entire report and http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2015/07/what-constitutional-challenges-arise-when-air-traffic-control-is-privatized-a-new-report-looks-at-the-situation-in-germany/ to read the author's blog post providing context for the report.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php and one of the new reports highlighted at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php. The Law Library of Congress produces reports for members of Congress and others. Learn more at http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/05/law-library-provides-global-legal-research/.

07/09/2015 03:46 PM
Provisions on Child Abduction in Non-Hague Countries

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The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Provisions on Child Abduction in Non-Hague Countries.

This report covers laws on parental child abduction and the legal aid that may be available to parents of abducted children in 38 countries that have not signed the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. The responses are organized by region of the world: East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. While in many countries no specific legislation or programs dealing with international abduction of children could be located, existing laws and general legal aid programs may be relevant.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/child-abduction/non-hague-countries.php to read the entire report.

Additionally, a companion report from our archived collection has been added to the Comprehensive Index of Legal Reports. This is a June 2004 report named "Hague Convention on International Child Abduction" and available at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php#adoption.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://loc.gov/law/help/legal-reports.php. The Law Library of Congress produces reports for members of Congress and others. Learn more at http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/05/law-library-provides-global-legal-research/.