Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem cells, bird flu, autism, nanotechnology, dinosaurs, evolution -- the latest discoveries in astronomy, anthropology, biology, chemistry, climate and environment, computers, engineering, health and medicine, math, physics, psychology, technology, and more -- from the world's leading universities and research organizations.

04/21/2018 11:05 PM
Dodo's violent death revealed
The famous Oxford Dodo died after being shot in the back of the head, according to new research. Using revolutionary forensic scanning technology and world-class expertise, researchers have discovered surprising evidence that the Oxford Dodo was shot in the neck and back of the head with a shotgun.

04/21/2018 01:57 PM
Large Candida auris outbreak linked to multi-use thermometers in UK ICU
Outbreaks of the fungal pathogen Candida auris in healthcare settings, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), may be linked to multi-use patient equipment, such as thermometers, according to new research.

04/21/2018 01:57 PM
New infection prevention tool improve transparency and standardization of practice
Researchers developed a new color-coded visual tool called Infection Risk Scan, or IRIS, which is set to make it easier for healthcare workers to measure in which areas a hospital complies with guidelines and where it needs to implement measures to improve infection control and the use antimicrobial therapies, according to new research.

04/21/2018 01:57 PM
West Nile virus reemerged and spread to new areas in Greece in 2017
West Nile virus (WNV), which is transmitted via mosquito bites, reemerged and spread to new territories of Greece in 2017 following a two-year hiatus in reported human cases, according to new findings. Greece provides the appropriate ecological and climatic conditions for WNV circulation. The virus has been established in Greece and disease transmission may continue in the future.

04/21/2018 01:57 PM
Scientists discover gene controlling genetic recombination rates
Genetic recombination is vital to natural selection, yet some species display far more crossover than others. Scientists have discovered a gene in fruit flies that is responsible for the evolution of these recombination rates.

04/21/2018 01:57 PM
Measles serious threat for babies, toddlers, unvaccinated youths
The vast majority of measles cases in Europe were reported in unvaccinated patients, and children younger than two years old were at a higher risk of dying from measles than older patients, according to new research.

04/21/2018 01:57 PM
E. coli's internal bomb may provide novel target for treatment strategy
Bacteria's internal bomb, the so-called toxin-antitoxin (TA) system that is part of the normal bacterial makeup, may be triggered to make bacteria turn on themselves, providing a valuable target for novel antimicrobial approaches in drug design, according to new research.

04/20/2018 10:06 PM
How social networking sites may discriminate against women
Using the photo-sharing site Instagram as a test case, researchers demonstrate how two common recommendation algorithms amplify a network effect known as homophily in which similar or like-minded people cluster together. They further show how algorithms turned loose on a network with homophily effectively make women less visible; they found that the women in their dataset, whose photos were slightly less likely to be 'liked' or commented on, became even less popular once recommendation algorithms were introduced.

04/20/2018 10:06 PM
Tiny microenvironments in the ocean hold clues to global nitrogen cycle
A new study shows that nitrogen-feeding organisms exist all over the deep ocean, and not just in large oxygen-depleted 'dead zones,' changing the way we think about the delicate nitrogen cycle.

04/20/2018 10:06 PM
Fungus: The good, the bad and their fortuitous differences
Genetic differences between two very similar fungi, one that led to Quorn™, the proprietary meat substitute, and another that ranks among the world's most damaging crop pathogens, have exposed the significant features that dictate the pair's very different lifestyles, features that promise targets for controlling disease.

04/20/2018 10:06 PM
Blood biomarkers may allow easier detection, confirmation of concussions
Researchers have found that specific small molecules in blood plasma may be useful in determining whether someone has sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly known as a concussion.

04/20/2018 10:05 PM
Animal study connects fear behavior, rhythmic breathing, brain smell center
There's increasing physiological evidence connecting breathing patterns with the brain regions that control mood and emotion. Now researchers have added neurons associated with the olfactory system to the connection between behavior and breathing. Connecting patterns in these interactions may help explain why practices such as meditation and yoga that rely on rhythmic breathing can help people overcome anxiety-based illnesses.

04/20/2018 10:05 PM
What's in a name? Researchers track PTSD's many identities during war
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with military activities for as long as wars have been fought -- but this disorder was only named in the 1980s. A new article documents a different kind of war -- a war of words -- that has been fought over the name of the disorder, and may have slowed clinical and scientific progress on the disorder.

04/20/2018 10:05 PM
Path to a new era of microelectronics
A new microchip technology capable of optically transferring data could solve a severe bottleneck in current devices by speeding data transfer and reducing energy consumption by orders of magnitude, according to a new article.

04/20/2018 06:14 PM
Students learn Italian playing Assassin's Creed video game
A professor has used video games to teach Italian, allowing his students to master two semesters worth of language acquisition through one intensive class for students new to the Italian language.

04/20/2018 06:14 PM
Grassland plants react unexpectedly to high levels of carbon dioxide
Plants are responding in unexpected ways to increased carbon dioxide in the air, according to a 20-year study.

04/20/2018 05:29 PM
When there's an audience, people's performance improves
Often people think performing in front of others will make them mess up, but a new study found the opposite: being watched makes people do better.

04/20/2018 05:29 PM
Remote-control shoots laser at nano-gold to turn on cancer-killing immune cells
Cancer immune cell therapy has made headlines with astounding successes like saving former US President Jimmy Carter from brain cancer. But immunotherapy has also had many tragic flops. Researchers working to optimize the innovative treatment have implanted a genetic switch that activates T-cells when they are inside of tumors. Remote-control light waves resembling those used in a TV remote combine with gold nanorods to flip the switch.

04/20/2018 05:29 PM
Rare earth magnet recycling is a grind -- this new process takes a simpler approach
A new recycling process turns discarded hard disk drive magnets into new magnet material in a few steps, and tackles both the economic and environmental issues typically associated with mining e-waste for valuable materials.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Treatment of cancer could become possible with adenovirus
Researchers have shown that adenovirus binds to a specific type of carbohydrate that is overexpressed on certain types of cancer cells. The discovery opens up new opportunities for the development of virus-based cancer therapy.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Soil metals linked with cancer mortality
Epidemiologists and geologists have found associations between esophageal cancer and soils where lead is abundant, lung cancer and terrains with increased copper content, brain tumor with areas rich in arsenic, and bladder cancer with high cadmium levels. These statistical links do not indicate that there is a cause-effect relationship between soil type and cancer, but they suggest that the influence of metals from the earth's surface on the geographical distribution of tumors should be analyzed.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Structured light and nanomaterials open new ways to tailor light at the nanoscale
New research has shown that carefully structured light and matching arrangements of metal nanostructures can be combined to alter the properties of the generated light at the nanometer scale. The teams have shown that the efficiency of nonlinear optical fields generated from the oligomers is strongly influenced by how the constituents of the oligomer constituents are illuminated by structured light.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
New DNA screening reveals whose blood the vampire bat is drinking
The vampire bat prefers to feed on domestic animals such as cows and pigs. When it does so, there is a risk of transmission of pathogens. Now, a new study describes a new DNA method to efficiently screen many vampire bat blood meal and fecal samples with a high success rate and thereby determine which animals the vampire bats have fed on blood from.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome
Little is still known about the exact causes of irritable bowel syndrome. An international team has provided initial clues about the organic triggers of the disease, which affects an estimated one out of six people.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Lupus treatment generates positive results in Phase III clinical trial
New research indicates that belimumab, a monoclonal antibody therapy that targets a component of the immune system, provides considerable benefits to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a predominately female, chronic inflammatory disease that can affect virtually any organ.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Medical chemists discover peptic ulcer treatment metallodrug effective in 'taming' superbugs
A novel solution to antimicrobial resistance -- medical chemists discover peptic ulcer treatment metallodrug effective in 'taming' superbugs.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Trees are not as 'sound asleep' as you may think
High-precision three-dimensional surveying of 21 different species of trees has revealed a yet unknown cycle of subtle canopy movement during the night. The 'sleep cycles' differed from one species to another. Detection of anomalies in overnight movement could become a future diagnostic tool to reveal stress or disease in crops.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Graphene sets a new record on squeezing light to one atom
Researchers reach the ultimate level of light confinement -- the space of one atom. This will pave the way to ultra-small optical switches, detectors and sensors.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Smarter fiber data transmission doubles capacity to the home
Researchers have developed data transmission techniques that can double or even triple the data transmission capacity of existing fiber to the home connections. Enjoying this increase requires you to upgrade your modem. But even if only your neighbors do, you can get a higher data capacity as well.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Genomics study in Africa: Demographic history and deleterious mutations
Scientists set out to understand how the demographic changes associated with the Neolithic transition also influenced the efficacy of natural selection. By comparing the genome diversity of more than 300 individuals from groups of forest hunter-gatherers (pygmies) and farmers (Bantu-speaking peoples), from western and eastern Central Africa, they discovered that the reason pygmies did not suffer from excessive deleterious mutations was because of their genetic diversity and their admixture with the Bantu peoples.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Fat cells seem to remember unhealthy diet
Fat cells can be damaged in a short amount of time when they are exposed to the fatty acid palmitate or the hormone TNF-alpha through a fatty diet, a new study shows. The researchers hope this new knowledge may be used to develop new preventive strategies for diabetes.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector
Researchers have shown the rapid selection of a novel P450 enzyme leading to insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Immune diversity among the KhoeSan population
By analyzing genes of two distinct groups of the KhoeSan, investigators were able to find a level of diversity and divergence in immune cell repertoires much higher than identified in any other population.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
New theory shows how strain makes for better catalysts
A new theory of how compression and tension can affect the reactivity of metal catalysts could be helpful in designing new and better catalysts.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
For heavy lifting, use exoskeletons with caution
You can wear an exoskeleton, but it won't turn you into a superhero. Researchers report that that a commercially available exoskeleton relieved stress on the arms just as it was supposed to -- but it increased stress on the back by more than 50 percent.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Meditation could help anxiety and cardiovascular health
In a student-led study, one hour of mindfulness meditation shown to reduce anxiety and some cardiovascular risk markers.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Research debunks 'myth' that strenuous exercise suppresses the immune system
New research suggests that rather than dampen immunity, endurance sports can actually boost the body's ability to fight off illness.

04/20/2018 05:28 PM
Wood formation model to fuel progress in bioenergy, paper, new applications
Need stronger timber, better biofuels or new sources of green chemicals? A systems biology model developed over decades of research will accelerate progress in engineering trees for specific needs.

04/20/2018 02:03 PM
Molecular movement analysis with accurate software
The software 'PyFRAP' is an accurate and reliable tool for the analysis of molecular movement, employing numerical simulations rather than simplified assumptions.

04/20/2018 02:03 PM
Faster walking heart patients are hospitalized less
Faster walking patients with heart disease are hospitalized less, according to new research.

04/20/2018 02:03 PM
Compound improves stroke outcome by reducing lingering inflammation
An experimental compound appears to improve stroke outcome by reducing the destructive inflammation that can continue months after a stroke, scientists report.

04/20/2018 04:38 AM
New 'brain health index' can predict how well patients will do after stroke
A new computer program can assess whole brain deterioration and help predict cognitive function after stroke up to ten times more accurately than current methods.

04/20/2018 04:38 AM
Bottlenose dolphins recorded for the first time in Canadian Pacific waters
A large group of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been spotted in Canadian Pacific waters -- the first confirmed occurrence of the species in this area.

04/19/2018 10:27 PM
Museum researchers rediscover animal not seen in 30 years
Researchers have rediscovered the San Quintin kangaroo rat (Dipodomys gravipes) in Baja California. The Museum is partnering with Terra and local authorities on a conservation plan for the species, which was last seen in 1986, and was listed as endangered by the Mexican government in 1994. It was held as an example of modern extinction due to agricultural conversion.

04/19/2018 10:26 PM
Clear as mud: Desiccation cracks help reveal the shape of water on Mars
As Curiosity rover marches across Mars, the red planet's watery past comes into clearer focus.

04/19/2018 10:26 PM
Male contraceptive compound stops sperm without affecting hormones: Study in monkeys
A new study details how a compound called EP055 binds to sperm proteins to significantly slow the overall mobility of the sperm without affecting hormones, making EP055 a potential 'male pill' without side effects.

04/19/2018 10:26 PM
New strategies for hospitals during mass casualty incidents
Using the layout of a typical urban hospital, the authors investigated a hospital's capacity and capability to handle mass casualty incidents of various sizes with various characteristics, and assessed the effectiveness of designed demand management and capacity-expansion strategies. Average performance improvements gained through capacity-expansion strategies were quantified and best response actions were identified.

04/19/2018 10:26 PM
Integrating optical components into existing chip designs
A new technique can assemble optical and electronic components separately on the surface of a computer chip, enabling the addition of optical components to existing chips with little design modification.

04/19/2018 08:46 PM
Dementia diagnosis linked to unnecessary medication use
A new study has found that medication use increases in newly diagnosed dementia patients, particularly unnecessary or inappropriate medications.

04/19/2018 08:46 PM
Variants in non-coding DNA contribute to inherited autism risk
In recent years, researchers have firmly established that gene mutations appearing for the first time, called de novo mutations, contribute to approximately one-third of cases of autism spectrum disorder. In a new study scientists have identified a culprit that may explain some of the remaining risk: rare inherited variants in regions of non-coding DNA.

04/19/2018 08:46 PM
Vitamin D deficiency linked to greater risk of diabetes
An epidemiological study suggests that persons deficient in vitamin D may be at much greater risk of developing diabetes.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
A complete cell atlas and lineage tree of the immortal flatworm
From one stem cell to many differentiated body cells: Scientists have now published a comprehensive lineage tree of a whole adult animal. This was made possible by a combination of RNA and computational technologies.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
Judges as susceptible to gender bias as laypeople -- and sometimes more so
A new study of trial court judges suggests these arbiters of the law sometimes let their personal ideas about gender roles influence their decision-making. The findings, which are part of a broader study of judicial behavior, revealed that the judges were just as likely as laypeople to discriminate - in ways that harmed both men and women - in decisions involving child custody or workplace discrimination cases related to family caregiving duties.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
Chip-based blood test for multiple myeloma could make bone biopsies a relic of the past
A new research effort has resulted in a low-cost, reliable blood test that uses a small plastic chip about the size of a credit card that can deliver the same diagnostic information as a bone biopsy -- but using a simple blood draw instead.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
Unprecedented wave of large-mammal extinctions linked to prehistoric humans
Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and other recent human relatives may have begun hunting large mammal species down to size -- by way of extinction -- at least 90,000 years earlier than previously thought, according to a new study. The magnitude and scale of the extinction wave surpassed any other recorded during the last 66 million years, according to the study.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
Atoms may hum a tune from grand cosmic symphony
Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. Their work forges new connections between atomic physics and the sudden expansion of the early universe.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
3-D human 'mini-brains' shed new light on genetic underpinnings of major mental illness
Researchers are leveraging gene-editing tools and mini-organs grown in the lab to study the effects of DISC1 mutations in cerebral organoids -- 'mini brains' -- cultured from human stem cells.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
Your grandchildren may retire before we achieve gender equality in STEMM
New research has calculated that without further interventions, the gender gap for women working in STEMM is very likely to persist for generations, particularly in surgery, computer science, physics and maths.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
Novel antioxidant makes old blood vessels seem young again
Older adults who take an antioxidant that specifically targets mitochondria see age-related changes in blood vessels reverse by the equivalent of 15 to 20 years within six weeks, a new study shows.

04/19/2018 07:15 PM
Great Barrier Reef coral predicted to last at least 100 years before extinction from climate change
A common Great Barrier Reef coral species has enough genetic diversity to survive at least 100 years before succumbing to global warming, researchers predict.