Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem cells, bird flu, autism, nanotechnology, dinosaurs, evolution -- the latest discoveries in astronomy, anthropology, biology, chemistry, climate and environment, computers, engineering, health and medicine, math, physics, psychology, technology, and more -- from the world's leading universities and research organizations.

08/19/2018 09:07 PM
Weaponizing oxygen to kill infections and disease
The life-threatening bacteria MRSA can cripple a medical facility since it is resistant to treatment. But scientists report that they are now making advances in a new technique that avoids antibiotics, instead using light to activate oxygen, which wipes out bacteria. The method also could be used to treat other microbial infections, and possibly even cancer.

08/19/2018 09:07 PM
A paper battery powered by bacteria
In remote areas of the world, everyday items like electrical outlets and batteries are luxuries. Health care workers in these areas often lack electricity to power diagnostic devices, and commercial batteries may be too expensive. Today, researchers report a new type of battery -- made of paper and fueled by bacteria -- that could overcome these challenges.

08/18/2018 04:58 PM
Acid coastal seas off US putting common fish species at risk
Scientists have shown that coastal waters and river estuaries can exhibit unique vulnerabilities to acidification than offshore waters. This acidification, detected in waters off the United States West Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, can lead to disorientation and cognitive problems in some marine fish species, such as salmon, sharks, and cod.

08/18/2018 04:58 PM
World's first-ever 4D printing for ceramics
A ground-breaking advancement in materials research by successfully developing the world's first-ever 4D printing for ceramics, which are mechanically robust and can have complex shapes. This could turn a new page in the structural application of ceramics.

08/18/2018 04:57 PM
Water-worlds are common: Exoplanets may contain vast amounts of water
Scientists have shown that water is likely to be a major component of those exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) which are between two to four times the size of Earth. It will have implications for the search of life in our Galaxy.

08/18/2018 04:56 PM
Making aquafeed more sustainable: Scientists develop feeds using a marine microalga co-product
Scientists have created a more sustainable feed for aquaculture by using a marine microalga co-product as a feed ingredient. The study is the first of its kind to evaluate replacing fishmeal with a co-product in feed designed specifically for Nile tilapia.

08/18/2018 04:56 PM
Insight into development of lung cancer
Lung cancer results from effects of smoking along with multiple genetic components. A new study identifies two main pathways for the role of chromosome 15q25.1 -- a leader in increasing susceptibility to lung cancer -- in modifying disease risk. One pathway is implicated in nicotine dependence. The other plays a part in biological processes such as nutrient transfer and immune system function. The findings increase our understanding of lung cancer cause and development.

08/18/2018 04:56 PM
Engineering team designs technology for smart materials
With inspiration from squid ring teeth, a multidisciplinary team has invented a novel way to manufacture smart materials, including fabrics, that can regulate their own thermal properties.

08/18/2018 04:56 PM
Chemistry professor develops contaminant detection technique for heparin
In 2008, a contaminant eluded the quality safeguards in the pharmaceutical industry and infiltrated a large portion of the supply of the popular blood thinner heparin, sickening hundreds and killing about 100 in the US.

08/18/2018 04:56 PM
A valley so low: Electrons congregate in ways that could be useful to 'valleytronics'
Researchers have made a finding that could help usher in new area of technology called 'valleytronics.' The study found that electrons in bismuth crystals prefer to collect in one valley rather than being distributed equally across valleys, setting up a type of electricity known as ferroelectricity.

08/18/2018 04:55 PM
Perinatal hypoxia associated with long-term cerebellar learning deficits and Purkinje cell misfiring
The type of hypoxia that occurs with preterm birth is associated with locomotor miscoordination and long-term cerebellar learning deficits but can be partially alleviated with an off-the-shelf medicine, according to a study using a preclinical model.

08/18/2018 04:55 PM
Students more likely to eat school breakfast when given extra time, new study finds
Using food weighting stations, the researchers collected information on the number of students who ate a school breakfast, how much they ate, and their exact nutritional intake.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional 'protein knockdown' in vertebrates
Researchers have developed a novel synthetic antibody that paves the way for an improved functional analysis of proteins.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
Astronomers observe cosmic steam jets and molecules galore
A team of scientists using the highest-frequency capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has uncovered jets of warm water vapor streaming away from a newly forming star. The researchers also detected the 'fingerprints' of an astonishing assortment of molecules near this stellar nursery.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
Ants, acorns and climate change
The relatively swift adaptability of tiny, acorn-dwelling ants to warmer environments could help scientists predict how other species might evolve in the crucible of global climate change, according to biologists.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
Like shark attacks and the lottery, unconscious bias influences cancer screening
Study shows that doctors with personal experience of cancer are more likely to act against established guidelines to recommend that low-risk women receive ovarian cancer screening.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
HIV and a tale of a few cities
In a pair of new modeling studies, researchers examined how policy reform in terms of drug decriminalization (in Mexico) and access to drug treatment (in Russia) might affect two regions hard hit by the HIV pandemic: Tijuana, Mexico and the Russian cities of Omsk and Ekaterinburg.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
Exploring the relationship between fever and cancer incidence
In a new paper, researchers propose a mechanistic hypothesis that focuses on the potential impact infectious fever has on a particular subset of T cells, known as gamma/delta T cells.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
New way to grow blood vessels developed
Formation of new blood vessels, a process also known as angiogenesis, is one of the major clinical challenges in wound healing and tissue implants. To address this issue, researchers have developed a clay-based platform to deliver therapeutic proteins to the body to assist with the formation of blood vessels.

08/17/2018 08:03 PM
Automated detection of focal epileptic seizures in a sentinel area of the human brain
In a first-in-humans pilot study, researchers have identified a sentinel area of the brain that may give an early warning before clinical seizure manifestations from focal epilepsy appear. They have also validated an algorithm that can automatically detect that early warning. These two findings offer the possibility of squelching a focal epilepsy seizure -- before the patient feels any symptoms -- through neurostimulation of the sentinel area of the brain.

08/17/2018 05:54 PM
Energy-efficient spin current can be controlled by magnetic field and temperature
Up to now, electronic computer components have been run on electricity, generating unwanted heat. If spin current were employed instead, computers and similar devices could be operated in a much more energy-efficient manner. Researchers have now discovered an effect that could make such a transition to spin current a reality.

08/17/2018 05:54 PM
Robots as tools and partners in rehabilitation
Why trust should play a crucial part in the development of intelligent machines for medical therapies.

08/17/2018 05:54 PM
AI could make dodgy lip sync dubbing a thing of the past
Researchers have developed a system using artificial intelligence that can edit the facial expressions of actors to accurately match dubbed voices, saving time and reducing costs for the film industry.

08/17/2018 05:53 PM
Novel nanoparticle-based approach detects and treats oral plaque without drugs
When the good and bad bacteria in our mouth become imbalanced, the bad bacteria form a biofilm (aka plaque), which can cause cavities, and if left untreated over time, can lead to cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases like diabetes and bacterial pneumonia. A team of researchers has recently devised a practical nanotechnology-based method for detecting and treating the harmful bacteria that cause plaque and lead to tooth decay and other detrimental conditions.

08/17/2018 05:53 PM
Invasive plants: Scientists examine the relative impact of proximity to seed sources
A new study tackles an important, unresolved question in the biology of invasive plants. Which is most important to the establishment of new invasive communities -- proximity to seed sources, canopy disturbance, or soil disturbance?

08/17/2018 05:53 PM
16 going on 66: Will you be the same person 50 years from now?
From 16 to 66 your personality will change and over time you will generally become more emotionally stable. But don't compare yourself to others; those who are the most emotionally stable when young are probably going to continue being the most stable as they age.

08/17/2018 05:53 PM
More efficient security for cloud-based machine learning
A novel encryption method secures data used in online neural networks, without dramatically slowing their runtimes. This approach holds promise for using cloud-based neural networks for medical-image analysis and other applications that use sensitive data.

08/17/2018 05:53 PM
Three factors could explain physician burnout in the US
In just three years, physician burnout increased from 45.5 percent to 54.4 percent, according to a new article. They offer three factors that they say contribute to this burnout.

08/17/2018 05:53 PM
As body mass index increases, blood pressure may as well
Body mass index is positively associated with blood pressure, according to the ongoing study of 1.7 million Chinese men and women.

08/17/2018 02:38 PM
Color effects from transparent 3D printed nanostructures
Structural coloration means that the microstructure of an object causes various colors to appear. For industry, this is an attractive alternative to coloring with pigments. But so far, scientists had primarily experimented with nanostructures observed in nature, or with simple, regular designs. Computer scientists now take a different, innovative approach: their tool automatically creates 3D print templates for nanostructures for user-defined colors, and their structures do not follow any particular pattern.

08/17/2018 02:38 PM
Moderate carbohydrate intake may be best for health, study suggests
A new study has found that diets both low and high in carbohydrates were linked with an increase in mortality, while moderate consumers of carbohydrates had the lowest risk of mortality. The study also found that low-carb diets that replace carbohydrates with proteins and fats from plant sources were associated with lower risk of mortality compared to those that replace carbohydrates with proteins and fat from animal sources.

08/17/2018 02:38 PM
Why some people with brain markers of Alzheimer's have no dementia
A new study has uncovered why some people that have brain markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) never develop the classic dementia that others do. The results showed that resilient individuals had a unique synaptic protein signature that set them apart from both demented AD patients and normal subjects with no AD pathology.

08/17/2018 02:38 PM
Statins associated with improvement of rare lung disease
Researchers have found that cholesterol-lowering statins may improve the conditions of people with a rare lung disease called autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The research also suggested that two new tests could help diagnose the condition.

08/17/2018 02:38 PM
Study confirms truth behind 'Darwin's moth'
Scientists have revisited -- and confirmed -- one of the most famous textbook examples of evolution in action.

08/17/2018 02:38 PM
Particulate pollution's impact varies greatly depending on where it originated
Aerosols are tiny particles that are spewed into the atmosphere by human activities, including burning coal and wood. They have negative effects on air quality -- damaging human health and agricultural productivity. New research demonstrates that the impact these fine particles have on the climate varies greatly depending on where they were released.

08/17/2018 02:37 PM
Harnessing energy from algae: Enzyme could help accelerate biofuel production
Researchers have homed in on an enzyme belonging to the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family as a promising target for increasing biofuel production from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

08/16/2018 11:32 PM
Quantum material is promising 'ion conductor' for research, new technologies
Researchers have shown how to shuttle lithium ions back and forth into the crystal structure of a quantum material, representing a new avenue for research and potential applications in batteries, 'smart windows' and brain-inspired computers containing artificial synapses.

08/16/2018 11:32 PM
Low bandwidth? Use more colors at once
As researchers engineer solutions for eventually replacing electronics with photonics, one team team has simplified the manufacturing process that allows utilizing multiple colors at the same time on an electronic chip instead of a single color at a time.

08/16/2018 11:32 PM
Astronomers identify some of the oldest galaxies in the universe
Astronomers have found evidence that the faintest satellite galaxies orbiting our own Milky Way galaxy are among the very first galaxies that formed in our universe.

08/16/2018 11:31 PM
Microfossils, possibly world's oldest, had biological characteristics
Scientists have confirmed that the 3.4-billion-year-old Strelley Pool microfossils had chemical characteristics similar to modern bacteria. This all but confirms their biological origin and ranks them amongs the world's oldest microfossils.

08/16/2018 08:31 PM
New CRISPR technique skips over portions of genes that can cause disease
In a new study in cells, researchers have adapted CRISPR gene-editing technology to cause the cell's internal machinery to skip over a small portion of a gene when transcribing it into a template for protein building. Such targeted editing could one day be useful for treating genetic diseases caused by mutations in the genome, such as Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease or some cancers.

08/16/2018 08:31 PM
How a 'jellyfish'-shaped structure relieves pressure in your cells
Scientists have solved the structure of a key protein that senses when our cells swell.

08/16/2018 08:31 PM
Novel sensors could enable smarter textiles
A fabric coating with thin, lightweight and flexible pressure sensors that can be embedded into shoes and other functional garments, sensors that can measure everything from the light touch of a finger to being driven over by a forklift. And it's comfortable to boot!

08/16/2018 08:31 PM
Human wastewater valuable to global agriculture, economics
It may seem off-putting to some, but human waste is full of nutrients that can be recycled into valuable products that could promote agricultural sustainability and better economic independence for some developing countries, says a new study.

08/16/2018 08:31 PM
Researchers are developing vaccines for human parasites
Researchers outline their lessons learned while creating vaccine candidates for hookworm and schistosomiasis.

08/16/2018 08:31 PM
Genetic differences in trees untouched by mountain pine beetles
A researcher has discovered that mountain pine beetles may avoid certain trees within a population they normally would kill due to genetics in the trees.

08/16/2018 08:31 PM
Protecting the power grid: Advanced plasma switch for more efficient transmission
Article describes research to design an advanced and cost-effective power switch to protect the US electric grid.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Twisted electronics open the door to tunable 2-D materials
Researchers report an advance that may revolutionize the field of 2-D materials such as graphene: a 'twistronic' device whose characteristics can be varied by simply varying the angle between two different 2-D layers placed on top of one another. The device provides unprecedented control over the angular orientation in twisted-layer devices, and enables researchers to study the effects of twist angle on electronic, optical, and mechanical properties in a single device.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Tibetan sheep highly susceptible to human plague, originates from marmots
In the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, one of the region's highest risk areas for human plague, Himalayan marmots are the primary carriers of the infectious bacterium Y. pestis. Y. pestis infection can be transmitted to humans and other animals by the marmots' parasitic fleas. Researchers determine that Tibetan sheep, who make up about one-third of China's total sheep population, also carry this disease and can transmit it to humans.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Whole blood test for toxoplasmosis is sensitive, specific
Transmission of toxoplasmosis from mother to fetus can lead to severe congenital problems and fetal death, and tests for the parasitic infection during pregnancy are critical. Now, researchers have showed the efficacy of a low-cost whole blood test for toxoplasmosis.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
99-million-year-old beetle trapped in amber served as pollinator to evergreen cycads
Flowering plants are well known for their special relationship to the insects and other animals that serve as their pollinators. But, before the rise of angiosperms, another group of unusual evergreen gymnosperms, known as cycads, may have been the first insect-pollinated plants. Now, researchers have uncovered the earliest definitive fossil evidence of that intimate relationship between cycads and insects.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Men and women show surprising differences in seeing motion
Researchers have found an unexpected difference between men and women. On average, their studies show, men pick up on visual motion significantly faster than women do.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
More workers working might not get more work done, ants (and robots) show
For ants and robots operating in confined spaces like tunnels, having more workers does not necessarily mean getting more work done. Just as too many cooks in a kitchen get in each other's way, having too many robots in tunnels creates clogs that can bring the work to a grinding halt.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Reverse osmosis membranes with tunable thickness
Researchers used electrospray technology to create ultra-thin, ultra-smooth polyamide membranes for reverse osmosis. This scalable process allows for better control of a membrane's fundamental properties, avoids the use of chemical baths, and can be applied to a variety of membrane separation processes.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Scientists discover why silver clusters emit light
Clusters of silver atoms captured in zeolites, a porous material with small channels and voids, have remarkable light emitting properties. They can be used for more efficient lighting applications as a substitute for LED and TL lamps. Until recently, scientists did not know exactly how and why these small particles emit light. An interdisciplinary team of physicists and chemists has now demonstrated for the first time where these properties originate. 

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Under pressure, hydrogen offers a reflection of giant planet interiors
Lab-based mimicry allowed an international team of physicists to probe hydrogen under the conditions found in the interiors of giant planets -- where experts believe it gets squeezed until it becomes a liquid metal, capable of conducting electricity.

08/16/2018 07:32 PM
Autism linked to egg cells' difficulty creating large proteins
New work reveals that the genetic factors underlying fragile X syndrome, and potentially from other autism-related disorders, stem from defects in the cell's ability to create unusually large protein structures. They found that mutations in the gene Fmr1 create problems in the and the reproductive system. They can lead to the most-common form of inherited autism, fragile X syndrome, as well as to premature ovarian failure.

08/16/2018 07:31 PM
Previously grainy wheat genome comes into focus
An international consortium has completed the sequence of wheat's colossal genome.

08/16/2018 07:31 PM
That stinks! One American in 15 smells odors that aren't there
A new study finds that one in 15 Americans (or 6.5 percent) over the age of 40 experiences phantom odors. The study is the first in the US to use nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for phantom odor perception. The study could inform future research aiming to unlock the mysteries of phantom odors.

08/16/2018 07:31 PM
How an herbivore hijacks a nutrient uptake strategy of its host plant
Maize plants release secondary metabolites into the soil that bind to iron and thereby facilitate its uptake by the plant. The Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), the economically most important maize pest worldwide, is attracted by these complexes, extracts the bound iron from the maize plant and uses it for its own nutrition. With these insights, researchers provide a new explanation for the extraordinary success of the Western corn rootworm as a global maize pest.